List of Useful Linux Commands

This post contains a collection of useful Linux commands for the Ubuntu distribution. The list is extended every time I find a new handy command. Most of the commands are also applicable to other Linux distributions.

File System Commands

DescriptionEXAMPLE
Display Current Working Directorypwd
Change Current Working Directorycd /path/to/directory
Show All Files in Current Directory (Including Hidden Ones)ls -la
Show Sizes of All Files and Directories in Current Directorydu -sh *
Show Available Disk Spacedf -h
Copy Filecp /source/file /destination/file
Move or Rename Filemv /source/file /destination/file
Create Directorymkdir myDirectory
Delete Filerm /path/to/file
Delete Directory Recursivelyrm -rf /path/to/directory
Change File Permissionssudo chmod 644 /path/to/file
Change Owner of Files / Directories (recursive)sudo chown -R user:group /my/path
File System Commands

Viewing and Editing Files

DescriptionExample
Display File Contentscat /path/to/file
Edit Filesudo nano /path/to/file
View End of Fileless +G /path/to/file
View End of File and Update Automaticallytail -f /path/to/file
Viewing and Editing Files

Package Management Commands

DescriptionExample
List Upgradable Packagesapt list --upgradable
Upgrade Installed Packagessudo apt upgrade
List All Installed Packagesapt list --installed
Show Version of Installed Packageapt list <package name>
Package Management Commands

Network / Internet / Firewall Commands

DescriptionExample
Check Host Availabilityping [IP or hostname]
Download Filecurl -O [URL]
List Open Portssudo lsof -i -P -n | grep LISTEN
Open Firewall to Specific Port from Local Subnetsudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 22
Delete Firewall Rule by Numbersudo ufw status numbered
sudo ufw delete 42
Network and Firewall Commands

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